Preface Introduction How to use the toolkit Theme sheets Home Links MPAs in the WIO Related initiatives




Additional sources of information

This page provides sources of further information, as well as an introduction on how to use the internet to its fullest potential when searching for additional information.

Obtaining further information

Using the internet


Obtaining further information

Here you can find information on how to obtain some of the more frequently cited publications, reports and other sources of information.

IUCN – The World Conservation Union

Most IUCN publications, including the IUCN/WCPA Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series and others specifically on MPAs are available from the IUCN Publications catalogue and can be viewed on the IUCN website ( ). Publications specific to the WIO are available from the regional office in Nairobi.

IUCN Publications Services Unit, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 ODL, UK. Fax: + 44 1223 277175; Email: ;

IUCN Eastern Africa Regional Office, P.O. Box 68200, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel. + 254 20 890605/12; Fax. + 254 20 890615; Email: ;

WWF – World Wide Fund for Nature

WWF publications and resources can be obtained by contacting the following offices:

WWF Eastern Africa Regional Programme Office (WWF EARPO), 5th Floor of A.C.S. Plaza along Lenana Road, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: + 254 20 577355; Fax: 577389; Email:

WWF Madagascar & West Indian Ocean Programme Office (WWF MWIOPO), B.P. 738 Antananarivo 101, Madagascar. Tel: + 261 20 22348 85; Fax: 2234888; Email:

WWF Tanzania Programme Office, Plot No. 350 Regent Estate, Mikocheni, Dar es Salaam, PO Box 63117, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Tel: + 255 22 27 00077; Fax: 2775535; Email:

WIOMSA – Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association

The manual produced by WIOMSA for the MPA manager training courses that are held in the WIO every two years complements the toolkit. The manual, other publications and the journal Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science, are available from:

Western Indian Marine Science Association (WIOMSA), P.O. Box 3298, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Tel. + 255 24 2233427; Fax: 2233582; Email: . Website:

UNEP – United Nations Environment Programme

For information on UNEP publications contact:

United Nations Environment Programme: P.O. Box 30552, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: + 254 20-621234; Fax: + 254 20 623927; Email: Website:

Publications specific to the Global Programme of Action:

Contact Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, Kortenaerkade 1, 2518 AX, The Hague, The Netherlands. Tel: + 3170 311 4460; Fax: 245 6648, Email: Website:

Publications Specific to the Nairobi Convention:

Contact – Nairobi Convention, P.O. Box 30552, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: + 254 20 623258; Fax: 624618; Email: Website:

UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Center, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, United Kingdom. Tel: + 44 01 22327731; Fax: 223277136; Email: Website:

UNDP – United Nations Development Programme

The website of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has a number of useful materials on project management, monitoring and evaluation, and GEF projects: (use the website’s ‘search’ tool).


The TRAFFIC network produces publications relating to trade in wildlife, available from:

TRAFFIC International, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge, CB3 ODL, UK. Tel: + 44 1223 277427; Fax: 277237; Email:

TRAFFIC East/Southern Africa, P.O. Box 63117, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Tel: + 255 22 2700077; Fax: 2775535; Email:


Several very useful publications produced by the Secretariat for Eastern African Coastal Area Management (SEACAM) are listed in the theme sheets. The SEACAM office and website have unfortunately closed, but the main publications are available from: or Email: attn: Mr. Hermes Pacule

TNC - The Nature Conservancy

Produces several publications on protected areas, particularly on topics relating to sustainable financing:

The Nature Conservancy, Worldwide Office, 4245 North Fairfax Drive, Arlington, VA 22203-1606, USA. Tel: + 1 703 8418170; Fax: 8414880; Email: Website:

FAO - Food and Agriculture Organisation

Many member countries have sales agents for FAO – check the website . FAO’s series of Technical Publications on fisheries issues and catalogue is available from:

FAO Fisheries library, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. Tel: + 39 06 57052174; Fax: 57052476; Email: or

World Fish Center (previously ICLARM)

Produces a range of resources and materials on fishery-related issues, including the database Fishbase:

The World Fish Center, PO Box 500, GPO, 10670 Penang, Malaysia (Street address: Jalan Batu Maung, 11960 Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia). Tel: + 60 4 6261606; Fax: 6265530; Website:

Also hosts ReefBase, a global coral reef database. Website:

WRI - World Resources Institute

Produces EarthTrends – the Environmental Information Portal ( ) which contains a variety of protected area information. Other WRI publications, such as Reefs at Risk available from:

World Resources Institute, 10G Street, NE, Suite 600, Washington D.C., USA. Tel: + 1 202 7297600; Fax: 7297610

AIMS - Australian Institute of Marine Science

Produces many reports and guides relating to the monitoring and management of tropical marine ecosystems.

Australian Institute of Marine Sciences, PMB No 3, Townsville Mail Centre, Townsville, Q 4810, Australia. Email:

CRC Reef Research Centre for the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area

This research centre produces many technical reports and information sheets which can be ordered or viewed via their web site.

CRC Reef Research Centre, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Australia. Website:

GBRMPA - Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

The GBRMPA manages the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, the largest coral reef MPA in the world. It produces a wide range of technical and educational materials which can be viewed via their web site or obtained in hard copy.

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, PO Box 1379, Townsville, Queensland 4810, Australia. Website:

Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island

Produces many publications and other resources on coastal management:

Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882, USA. Tel: +1 401 8746224; Fax: 7894670; Email: Website:

Newsletters, general references and other useful sources

MPA News - published monthly through the School of Marine Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle. Subscriptions are free and issues can be received electronically or in paper form. To subscribe, send an email to . The website allows automated searches by keyword through back issues of the newsletter.

CoastCare Fact Sheet - South Africa has its own ‘marine’ toolkit, which gives a wealth of information on topics relevant to the WIO in general, although with a South African angle:

Attwood, C., Branch, M., Mann-Lang, J., Matthews, S., Glavovic, B. 2001. CoastCare Fact Sheet Series. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, South Africa. Website:

Coral-List - NOAA’s Coral Health and Monitoring Program listserver provides a forum for discussions and announcements by coral reef researchers interested in reef health and conservation. Subscription details on the website:

UN Atlas of the Oceans – an Internet portal that provides an information system for use by policymakers, scientists and resource managers, covering a wide range of coastal and marine management topics. Website:

UNESCO OceanPortal – a web-based directory of Ocean Data and Information related web sites, aimed at helping scientists and other marine experts locate information. Website:

Global Islands Network – the website for this non-profit organisation, aimed at helping with sustainable development in island nations, has a range of useful publications and resources.


Using the internet

The Internet is a vast, expanding, worldwide network, available to anyone with access to a computer, modem and telecommunications. It provides access to both email and the World Wide Web ( www or ‘the web’). This consists of many millions of screen pages of text, images and sound files, made available by individuals or organisations including governments, companies and NGOs. The information is made available on ‘web pages’ which are located at a specific addresses called a ‘website’.

Websites are viewed by a computer programme called a browser, of which of two popular ones are Internet Explorer and Netscape. Exploring the web is called web-surfing or surfing. Every website has a unique address, known as a domain. The address generally starts with www and ends with certain letter combinations. Domains can be registered (owned) by governments, organizations or individuals.

Normally, the letter combinations .com and .biz are used by companies and individuals, with .org and .net used by non governmental and international organizations, and .ac and .edu by academic and educational institutions. National governments, government agencies and ministries usually use .gov or .gouv . Sometimes an address ends with a suffix denoting its country such as .tz (Tanzania), .ke (Kenya), .mu (Mauritius) or .za (South Africa).

General procedure for finding information

The Internet is a mine of information, but often the information being sought is hidden amongst thousands of irrelevant websites. To visit a known website, open the web browser, connect to the Internet, and type in the website address. It is very important to use precisely the correct spelling, including full stops (i.e. dots) and any underscores. Any typing error will prevent the web browser from locating the website. Lower case letters are generally used for website addresses. Where http:// is written in front of www in a website address, it signifies the protocol or language used by computers. Normally browsers will accept a website address starting with www only.

Frequently-used website addresses can be stored in the browser memory, typically under the heading ‘Favourites’. This means that the address does not need be typed in each time a user wishes to access the website.

Internet users searching for sites for which no details are known, should use ‘Search Engines’ and ‘Directories’. Web directories are organized website listings put together by human reviewers. By comparison, a search engine indexes websites and allows users to search its database for sites on particular subjects. Hundreds of search engines are available on the Internet, in many languages. However no single search engine has a complete index of all existing websites. Some of the main English language search engines are Google ( ), and AltaVista ( ).

Directories such as MSN ( ) and Yahoo ( ) list sites organised by subject. The site may also prove useful, being a ‘search engine of search engines’, comprising a database of hundreds of search engines, covering a wide range of topics in different languages. For example, a typical subject-specific search engine, held in this database and of use to MPAs is .

Within the Toolkit, there are some website addresses that appear very long and complicated, such as: . These are short cuts that direct the browser to a specific page of the website producing the information, in this case, Leeds University in UK .

The specific location of a page on a website changes frequently unfortunately. Thus, if a website address does not work, users should try accessing the main organisation, and searching through their index and contents to find the right page. When searching for a specific item such as a publication or report, many websites have their own search programmes that reduce search time.

Useful tips

Surfing the Internet for information can be very time consuming especially when connection speeds are slow, as is often the case in the WIO. The following are some tips to help speed up information retrieval:

- Use the correct spelling. Some search engines like Google will deduce a spelling mistake and suggest alternative words, others will not.

- Be specific and group key words. Typing ‘marine protected areas’ rather than ‘protected areas’ will result in a much smaller and more relevant set of websites.

- Use quotation marks around a group of words to search for the group in that particular order.

- Use more than one group of words, in separate quotation marks. This makes the search even more specific. e.g. “‘marine protected areas’ and ‘eco-tourism’”.

- Use capital letters for names and proper nouns. e.g. ‘Reunion’ will access information on the country, whereas ‘reunion’ will also include meetings of old friends and colleagues!

- If searching for a specific website, type the name but omit the ‘www’ and ‘.com’ which are not regarded as search engine terminology.

- Try out the advanced features of the search engine. Advanced search filter options, such language, text, video or images can again reduce the unwanted material.

- Try out features of the Internet browser, such as the ‘Find on Page’ command, to locate the specific reference to the content being searched for. This feature can help determine quickly if a website is useful or not and save a lot of time.