Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association

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Impacts of large-scale infrastructure developments on coastal biodiversity: A case of LAPSSET infrastructure project in Lamu

A. Basic Facts

The Lamu Port South-Sudan Ethiopia Transport (LAPSSET) Corridor Program is a regional multimodal infrastructure program integrating roads, railway and oil pipeline components in Kenya, South Sudan and Ethiopia. The Program is the single largest project of its nature in Eastern Africa and is intended to provide seamless connectivity, enhance trade and logistics within the region by providing an alternative and strategic corridor to serve the landlocked neighboring countries of Ethiopia and South Sudan. The corridor covers over half of the country with a planned investment resource of about US$25 Billion, equivalent to half of Kenya’s GDP for the core investment alone. It is anticipated that the project will inject between 2% to 3% of GDP into the economy and it is expected to contribute 8% to 10% when generated and attracted investments finally come on board.

The research is aimed at addressing the following anticipated impacts and policy gaps as a result of the LAPSSET Corridor Program: –

  1. Loss of critical biodiversity assets through dredging of the sea bed and degradation of marine environment (mangroves, sea grass, coral reefs etc.) and terrestrial environment (forest, wildlife, grasslands, dhuris (shrines), etc.)
  2. High cost of LAPSSET infrastructure maintenance due to sedimentation (as result of sea wave action and land use related activities)
  3. Population growth and demand for associated social and physical infrastructure (housing, water, sanitation, roads, etc.)
  4. Community access to land resources and livelihoods
  5. Inadequate institutional capacity


   i. Project Partners

World Wide Fund for Nature Kenya (WWF-Kenya); National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) and LAPSSET Corridor Development Authority (LCDA)

   ii. Project Duration 3 years
   iii. Project Site(s)
   iv. Project Country
   v. Budget USD 303,644
B. Project Objectives

General Objective: By the end of the project, the research findings will contribute towards safeguarding and maintaining the integrity of critical coastal ecosystems (marine and terrestrial) within the LAPSSET Corridor Program area for people, economy and nature.

Specific objective 1: By 2022, there is data and information available to inform planning and decision-making for better environmental governance and sustainable development in the LAPSSET Program area.

Specific objective 2. By 2022, key policy and institutional frameworks are influenced to create an enabling environment for sustainable management of natural resources.



C. Expected Results

Establish trend and extent of loss of the natural capital

Determine land use and land tenure trends.

Undertake climate variability/risk assessment and propose adaptation measures.

Assessment of the status of compliance with Environmental and Social safeguards.

Assessment the impacts of the LAPSSET Corridor Program development on livelihoods of the PAPs.

D. Project Activities

At the minimum, the following processes will be undertaken;

  1. Inception meeting: This meeting will bring together the implementation team to walk through the project and generate a common understanding of the deliverables, M&E capacity gap/need assessment and strengthening to Support effective data collection, documentation and reporting of project outcomes, impacts and lessons.
  2. Development of a MEL plan: A MEL plan will jointly be developed by the project team. The project log frame will provide guidance to a detailed project performance measurement framework with key performance indicators (KPIs)
  3. Establishing baseline: Baseline information will be critical in guiding monitoring of the progress and evaluation towards achievement of the set objectives.
  4. Reporting: Routine monitoring visits for the project, Semi-annual and annual reporting will be done in accordance with donor requirements.  Clearly set outputs, outcomes and associated indicators will form the basis for the reporting in a structured Performance Monitoring Plan (PMP).
  5. Learning and Knowledge Management: Deliberate effort will be put to profile, document and disseminate case studies and best practices to inform quality improvement and replication. Key lessons learned through project implementation will be shared in internal annual /semiannual reflection meetings, workshops and local and international fora with stakeholders.
  6. Evaluations: There will be an internal multi-stakeholder midterm review (MTR) and end of project evaluations as per project requirements (for end term evaluation) for adaptive management and accounting for project achievements respectively.
E. Publications
F. Students Supported by the Project 1. Alex Kubasu 2. Robert Okoyo
G. For more information, either visit or contact:

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