Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association

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Smart and Sustainable Transitioning for Coastal Cities in the Face of Global Environmental Change

A. Basic Facts

The definition of the concept of a smart sustainable city is  hard to pin down. The concept possesses characteristics that make the city’s residents better. Some authors have grouped these characteristics into 4 dimensions, namely, smart people, smart economy, smart environment and smart governance. It should be noted that cities can be sustainable without being smart and can be smart without being sustainable. In other words, cities can be made sustainable without the use of smart ICT technologies and smart technologies can also be used within cities without giving a share in the sustainable development.Thus, the adoption of SSCs solutions requires the use of smart ICT technologies to make cities more sustainable.

This project does not seek to measure the degree of smartness, or for that matter sustainability. Instead, it will employ the ITU’s definition to envision a smart sustainable city of Mombasa as a place which;

  • Meets the needs of its present generation
  • Does not compromise the needs of future generation
  • Provides equal opportunities for growth and development for everyone’s potential;
  • Does all the above in a smart way, using ICTs and other innovative strategies
   i. Project Partners

1. Coastal and Marine Resources Development (COMRED) – Kenya

2. eThekwini Municipality/Durban- S. Africa

3.University of Witwatersrand- S. Africa

4.Macquarie University –Australia

5.County Government of Mombasa- Kenya

6. Kenya Marine and Fisheries Institute- Kenya 7University of KwaZulu-Natal, S. Africa

   ii. Project Duration 2019-2021
   iii. Project Site(s)
   iv. Project Country Kenya and South Africa
   v. Budget USD 317 210
B. Project Objectives

The overarching aim of this research project is to co-creatively examine the city systems in Mombasa, , and design practical pathways to becoming a smart and sustainable coastal city. This aim will be achieved by addressing three broad objectives, based on transdisciplinary visioning, and guided by an action research approach:

1. Conducting a situational assessment of key drivers of urban form

2. Predicting future trajectories based on business as usual scenarios

3. Envisioning, prototyping and mainstreaming smart and sustainable future pathways

C. Expected Results
  • Report on energy sources, reliability, affordability and efficiency
  • A framework on peer-to-peer knowledge transfer; implementation of CEBA in Mombasa
  • Report on the relevance and effectiveness of development plans, vision docs and institutional arrangements
  • An inventory of greenhouse gas emissions
  • Provide vulnerability maps;
  • Report on the need and scope of using geospatial capabilities
  • Report on the current status of the water, sanitation and waste disposal systems
  • A consolidated report clearly outlining the pathways to a smart and sustainable city
D. Project Activities

Some of the anticipated activities include

  • Literature review and quantifying degraded areas requiring restoration
  • Assessment and analysis of current key drivers of urban form in Mombasa
  • Comparative assessment of selected associated issues in Durban
  • Peer to peer learning activity between the Cities of Mombasa and Durban
  • Execution of a model/pilot activity in case study location
E. Publications

1. Kithiia, J., & Majambo, G. (2020). Motion but no speed: Colonial to the post-colonial status of water and sanitation service provision in Mombasa city. Cities, 107, 102867.

2. Kithiia, J., Wanyonyi, I., Maina, J., Jefwa, T., & Gamoyo, M. (2020). The socio-economic impacts of Covid-19 restrictions: Data from the coastal city of Mombasa, Kenya. Data in brief, 33, 106317.

F. Students Supported by the Project 1.Ms Lynne Farrah, Kenyatta University, Level: Master in Science (MSc), Issue of Investigation: Determinants Influencing Performance of Solid Waste Management in Mombasa County, Kenya – data collection 2.Mr Titus Jefwa, University: Technical University of Mombasa, Level: Master in Science (MSc) Issue of Investigation -Smart Solid Waste Waste Management in Kenya using Internet of Things based Artificial Intelligence Techniques 3.Ms. Virginia Mumbua Ngei, Haramaya University, Ethiopia, Level: Master in Science (MSc), Issue of Investigation: Willingness to Pay for Mangrove Conservation in the Context of Climate Change in Mombasa County, Kenya.- collected data/analysis 4.Ms. Ashleigh Sakala, University of the Witwatersrand (Architecture & Planning), Level: March(Prof): Issue of Investigation: Prototyping Makers Spaces as Hubs for Communities-of-Practice in Sustainable/Smart City Transitioning 5.Ms. Vipua Rukambe, University of the Witwatersrand (Architecture & Planning), Level: PhD: Issue of Investigation – Prototyping Design/Planning Charrette as Platforms for Futures-Thinking in Sustainable/Smart City Transitioning
G. For more information, either visit or contact: http://www.mijibora.org