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BY-Catch Assessment and Mitigation in Western Indian Ocean Fisheries (BYCAM)

BY-Catch Assessment and Mitigation in Western Indian Ocean Fisheries (BYCAM)

Project Objectives

The overall aim of this project is to provide for future sustainable fisheries by addressing bycatch in the WIO. Specifically this will include assessment of bycatch of large, non-target vulnerable megafauna species, provide realistic mitigation measures and recommendations for governance & management. Thereby facilitating ecological and socio-economical sustainable artisanal, small-scale commercial and semi-industrial fisheries in the WIO. Vulnerable megafauna are of particular interest as they are extremely vulnerable to non-natural mortalities as a result of late maturity and low reproductive rates, whilst being important for the stability of ecosystems. The project will focus on three types of artisanal, small-scale commercial and semi-industrial fisheries with known bycatch problems: prawn trawls and coastal longlines and gillnets (drift and bottom-set). The work will be focussed in Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zanzibar with a small-scale case study in Madagascar.

To address the identified gaps in our understanding the following research objectives will be addressed:

i) Review of current WIO fisheries monitoring activities and their management efficacy.
ii) Collection and assessment of prawn trawl and coastal gillnet and longline fisheries effort data in Kenya, Tanzania, Zanzibar and Mozambique, using official fisheries statistics and observer networks.
iii) Collection and assessment of bycatch data, species and rates for elasmobranchs, marine mammals and sea turtles in coastal fisheries through use of observers & fisher networks.
iv) Evaluation of existing bycatch mitigation methods where these exist.
v) Evaluation of observed (using observers & fisher networks) bycatch composition and rate against those reported through RBAs to assess reliability.
vi) Survey of socio-economic importance of species and perceptions of stakeholders towards these species including their non-consumptive value, their ecosystem importance and sustainability especially under future scenarios of megafauna removal and likely impacts on trophic foodweb dynamics.
vii) Pros and cons of different management measures considered alongside policy, governance, socio-economic behavioural drivers, markets and livelihood issues.
viii) Constraints to management mitigation measures and critical factors affecting economic and social performance indices will be identified and used to inform development of good governance support and policy reform so they are developed at the same time and not at the end as an ‘add-on’.
ix) Collection of life history parameter data (age, growth curves, reproductive capability, age of maturity) for selected megafauna species of high bycatch rate in order to perform demographic analysis and aid in stock assessment.
x) Produce an ERA (productivity-susceptibility analysis) at the WIO scale based on RBA survey data, from semi-industrial, small-scale commercial and artisanal fisheries
xi) For marine mammal species; for those areas where data are available on population abundance and genetic population structure, assessment of bycatch impact on respective population will be conducted.
xii) Carry out a series of bycatch mitigation trials across fisheries in the region (TEDs, pingers, circle hooks and re-developed methods); assessing their efficiency and feasibility for broad scale implementation.
xiii) Create an updatable spatial database with further development of a redistributable and revised atlas, fact sheets and thematic maps detailing fisheries effort, gear type, species presence (in bycatch), levels of bycatch in gear type and areas of highest risk (stress areas) for species across surveyed fishing grounds within the WIO. This will further serve to identify areas of critical importance and areas in need of more extensive work in the future.
Recommendations for bycatch assessment and mitigation methods for respective fishing gear for future sustainability and management.

The official website for this project is bycamwio.weebly.com

Methodology

Team Composition

The project has brought together expert biologists, social scientists, interdisciplinary researchers and stakeholders, including fisheries managers, fishers, and government and non-government representatives. The team has adopt an interdisciplinary approach drawing on methods from the natural and social sciences and will collect both quantitative and qualitative data to assess the extent of bycatch in WIO fisheries and to develop strategies for mitigating bycatch while accounting for social and economic constraints and opportunities within a multi-level governance framework.

Socio-economics

In recognising few studies in the WIO have examined the relationship between efficient governance and fisheries management efficacy, this project will extend earlier socio-economic research undertaken by the collaborators in the WIO and apply state-of-the-art policy analysis methods to produce advice on options for addressing strengths and weaknesses in existing multi-level governance systems.

Project Network

The project carry out its work through the creation of extensive network of fishers and observers to record bycatch in selected case study fisheries within each country (e.g. Mombasa-Kenya, Dar es Salaam-Tanzania, Stone Town – Zanzibar, Sofala Bank-Mozambique, Mahajunga-Madagascar and selected fisheries village landing sites in Kenya, Tanzania and Zanzibar). Effort will be assessed through these networks alongside triangulation of data including use of government fisheries statistics supplied by the project partners.

Project database

A spatial database is been created detailing fisheries effort, gear type, species presence (in bycatch), levels of bycatch by gear type and areas of highest risk for species across fishing grounds in the WIO. This will identify of areas of critical need for management and where future research is needed.

The project then assess the level and potential impact of bycatch on social, economic and environmental drivers of fishers’ fishing behaviour within a governance context before implementing a series of mitigation studies using future scenario analysis in order to test the success of different mitigation technologies, both existing and re-designed, and their feasibility in these fisheries, also accounting for their governance needs alongside management effectiveness. Proof of concept is provided through previous work on gillnet bycatch mitigation and use of fisher networks by the co-PI Dr Amir, as well as by the success of trials with prawn trawl bycatch mitigation devices in the region. It is expected that the project will assess the scale and impacts of bycatch in fisheries across the WIO, and will introduce and test mitigation technologies and champion their use across the large-scale with associated governance recommendations and policy reform needs identified. Through this in the longer term the main impact will be reduced bycatch of long-lived marine megafauna and processes developed to support a move towards a more sustainable future for them and the ecosystems over which some of these keystone species exert top-down control.

Expected Results

This project aims to produce the following outputs:

  • A published review of current WIO fisheries monitoring activities and their efficacy.
  • Comprehensive assessment of gillnet, coastal longline and prawn trawl fisheries effort data in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zanzibar using fisheries statistics and observer networks.
  • Comprehensive assessment of bycatch data, species and rates for elasmobranchs, marine mammals and sea turtles in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Zanzibar.
  • Evaluation of RBAs and their reliability as accurate indicators of fisheries bycatch.
  • Understanding of the socio-economic importance of bycatch species and perceptions of stakeholders towards these species, their ecosystem importance and sustainability.
  • Increased understanding of the life history parameters of important bycatch species.
  • Produce an ERA for vulnerable megafauna species at the level of the WIO region.
  • Testing and assessment of the effectiveness of bycatch mitigation technologies in the prawn trawl and coastal longline and gillnet fisheries, their feasibility and encouraging their implementation.
  • A functional sharable spatial database, regional atlas and thematic toolbox that details regional fisheries effort, gear type usage, megafauna species presence and bycatch levels from which future areas where there is a need for management initiatives can be identified.
  • Recommendations to WIO fisheries agencies for future sustainability, governance and management practices, based on sound scientific work and proof of mitigation effectiveness and feasibility.
  • A series of scientific journal articles and policy briefs to communicate the results of the project.
  • Contribution to national, regional and global databases (WIOFish, OBIS, AfreMas and IOTC)

The project aims to have the following outcomes:

Re invigoration of initiatives to reduce unnecessary bycatch in WIO fisheries, and improvement of the application of TEDs and other mitigation methods in the WIO.
Improved uptake of bycatch reduction initiatives in other WIO fisheries by avoiding a “tragedy of the commons” – e.g., why should inshore gillnetters modify their methods if trawlers do not modify theirs?
Improvement of negative perceptions of the impacts of WIO gillnetting, longlining and shrimp trawling.
Improvement of industry attitudes towards bycatch and improved adherence to the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fishing.
Improved fishing selectivity through bycatch mitigation, a component of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries management (FAO 2003).
Best practices guidelines and Improved governance and management of fisheries and adoption of adaptive management methods.
Basic Facts

BASIC FACTS
Acronym: BYCAM
Duration: 36 months (December 2014 – November 2017)
Project Reference: MASMA/CP/2014/01
Budget: US$ 654 269
WIOMSA Contribution: US$ 369 969
Project Coordinator:Omar A. AMIR and Atanasio BRITO

Project Partners:

The Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Zanzibar (MLF), Fisheries Research Institute of Mozambique (IIP), Institute of Marine Science (IMS), Kenya Marine Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI), Global Vision International (GVI), Oceanographic Research Institute of South Africa (ORI), Newcastle University (NU), Florida International University (FIU), and Community Centered Conservation, Madagascar (C3)

Lead Institution: Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries (MLF) and Fisheries Research Institute (IIP)
Year of Approval: 2014
Project Country: Kenya, Madagascar, South Africa, Tanzania, and Mozambique
Investigators: Omar A. Amir, Atanasio Brito, Narriman S. Jiddawi, Edward Kimani, Nina N.Wambiji, Harrison Onganda, Noah Ngisiange, Sergi Perez, Sean Fennessy, Bernadine Everett, Per Berggren, Selina Stead, Andrew Temple, Jeremy Kiszka, Chris Poonian, and Yvette Razafindrakoto
Study Sites: http://www.wiomsa.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Bycam-Map.png
Project Activities:

Theme 1: Assessment of current regional fisheries statistics and bycatch data
Activity 1.1 – Review of WIO fisheries statistics and bycatch for artisanal, small-scale commercial and semi-industrial fisheries
Current data on monitoring activities and efficacy will be reviewed by the partners with data supplied by the fisheries organisations of each country.
Materials and methodology:
A data form will be used to collect the data and will include questions regarding fishing effort, catch of target species and bycatch of non-target species. Methodology and data currently collated by governmental fisheries bodies will be supplied for assessment, analyses, data gap identification and recommendations for improvement.
Output: A report will be produced for all involved fisheries organisations detailing recommendations for improvement of current monitoring activities.
Geographic description: Activity will be conducted across all WIO countries who agree to provide data.
Time Frame: Commence at the start of the project and continue for 12 months.
Responsible partner/s: Responsible partner for assessment: Dr Amir and Dr Brito (leading) assisted by all other partners.
Theme 2: Bycatch assessment in coastal gillnet, longline and prawn trawl fisheries
Activity 2.1 – Socio-Economic importance of bycatch species
Understanding the socio-economic importance of bycatch species to stakeholders is vital in the process of bycatch mitigation and in determining priority species.
Materials and methodology:
Intensive surveys of stakeholders conducted alongside RBA surveys (see Activity 2.2, 2.3 & 2.4) will collect base data on the monetary and dietary value of bycatch species as a portion of the overall fishery.
Output: This data will inform the selection of priority bycatch species which will receive demographic analyses (see Activity 2.2 and 2.3 & 2.4).
Geographic description: The activity will be conducted at representative sites in Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and Zanzibar.
Time Frame: Commence 6 months after the start of the project and continue for 6 months.
Responsible partner/s: Responsible partners for surveys will be Prof Stead (leading) and Mr Temple assisted by Dr Amir, Dr Brito, Dr Wambiji and Dr Jiddawi.
Activity 2.2 – Bycatch assessment of coastal gillnets (bottomsets and driftnets)
Current data on fisheries effort and bycatch statistics for coastal gillnet fisheries will be collected by existing fishery observers, complimented by the creation of dedicated fisher networks in order to significantly increase data collection and involve stakeholders.
Materials and methodology:
Beach based data recording is appropriate for this task as there are negligible discards in coastal gillnet fisheries, meaning that landings are an accurate representation of bycatch and so boosting efficiency of data collection. The network will collect data on fisheries effort (length of nets, set and/or drift soak hours), gear type (bottomset/driftnet and configuration), target and bycatch species (with tooth samples and photographs to allow for verification), catch volume, catch weight and other important biological and ecological characteristics for demographic analyses to assess catch composition and any possible patterns/vulnerable groups within the population (e.g. size; sex; gravidity; maturity; age – tooth samples, vertebrae) at selected
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locations. Complementary data will be collected through current national fisheries observer networks and RBAs will be performed.
Output: A scientific paper will be prepared for publication in union with data from Activity 2.2; consisting of data on bycatch composition, analysis of species statistics and demographics and identification of species facing significant risk. Fieldwork for one Bachelors thesis in Madagascar will be supported through collaboration with the University of Antsiranana.
Geographic description: The activity will be conducted at representative sites in Kenya, Tanzania, Madagascar and Zanzibar.
Time Frame: Commence 6 months after the start of the project and continue throughout the study.
Responsible partner/s: Responsible partners for training of observers in data recording and carrying out the dissemination of the recorded bycatch data will be Dr Amir (leading), Dr Wambiji, Ms Razafindrakoto and Mr Poonian, Dr Jiddawi assisted by Dr Berggren and Dr Kiszka. Responsible partner for species demographic analysis will be Mr Temple.
Activity 2.3 – Bycatch assessment of coastal longlines
Current data on fisheries effort and bycatch statistics for coastal longline fisheries will be collected by existing fishery observers, complimented by the creation of dedicated fisher networks in order to significantly increase data collection and involve stakeholders.
Materials and methodology:
Beach based data recording is appropriate for this task as there are negligible discards in coastal longline fisheries, meaning that landings are an accurate representation of bycatch and so boosting efficiency of data collection. The network will collect data on fisheries effort (line soak hours) and line configuration (hook count & line length). Catch data will be collected in accordance with data collection methodology expressed in Activity 2.2. Complementary data will be collected through current national fisheries observer networks and RBAs will be performed.
Output: A scientific paper will be prepared for publication in union with data from Activity 2.2; consisting of data on bycatch composition, analysis of species statistics and demographics and identification of species facing significant risk.
Geographic description: Activity will be conducted at representative sites in Kenya, Tanzania and Zanzibar.
Time Frame: Commence 6 months after the start of the project and continue throughout the study.
Responsible partner/s: Responsible partners for training of observers in data recording and carrying out the dissemination of the recorded bycatch data will be Dr Amir (leading), Dr Wambiji, Dr Jiddawi assisted by Dr Berggren and Dr Kiszka. Responsible partner for species demographic analysis will be Mr Temple.
Activity 2.4 – Assessment of TED effectiveness in prawn trawls
Existing catch and effort data from those countries which have been using TEDs (Kenya, Tanzania, and Madagascar) will be analysed to examine their effectiveness; in the process, up-to-date assessments of the levels of bycatch of megafauna in these fisheries will be undertaken.
Materials and methodology:
In Kenya and Tanzania, catch and effort data from recent SWIOFP research surveys, which incorporated a TED in one of the two simultaneously-deployed trawls, will be analysed to compare TED/non-TED catches. In Madagascar, logbook catch and effort data pre- and post-TED installation will be compared to detect changes in catch rates of target and retained bycatches. Data will be shared and analysed during a workshop involving participants from each country to ensure that analyses are standardised and appropriate. RBAs will also be undertaken.
Output: A scientific paper will be prepared for publication, consisting of an assessment of the effectiveness of existing TED usage n the WIO.
Geographic description: The activity will be conducted in Kenya and Madagascar with historical data contributed from Tanzania.
Time Frame: Commence at the start of the project and continue for 12 months.
Responsible partner/s: Responsible partners for data analysis will be Dr Brito (leading) and an MSc student from Mozambique, Dr Fennessy, GAPCM and Dr Kimani.
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Theme 3: Mitigation of bycatch in coastal gillnet, longline and prawn trawl fisheries.
Activity 3.1 – Creation and redevelopment of bycatch mitigation technologies
Materials and methodology:
Initial trials with a novel sound & light pinger (made mainly from recycled material available in developing countries) for dolphin and turtle bycatch mitigation in gillnets are currently being conducted at Newcastle University. This work initiative will be further developed and trialled during the project. In addition a competition to redesign currently available bycatch mitigation, for use in coastal gillnet and longlines, to create economically viable designs for use in developing nations methods (e.g. create low cost mechanical rather than electronic pingers or circle/J-hooks) will be organised and advertised through the WIOMSA website (if agreeable) and at participating universities, making use of the strong marine engineering departments within them. The project will also link to the WWF Smartgear competition and propose a new category – low cost mitigation measures suitable for developing nations.
Output: Designs for economically viable mitigation technologies for use in developing nations.
Geographic description:
The activity will be conducted at Newcastle University and Florida International University, and through an advertised competion via all collaborating institutions’ websites (and WIOMSA’s if agreeable) and linked to WWF Smart Gear Competition.
Time Frame: Commence after 3 months after the start of the project and continue for 6 months.
Responsible partner/s: Responsible partners for these competitions will be Dr Berggren and Dr Kiszka with the involvement of an MPhil student and Newcastle University responsible for testing the designs.
Activity 3.2 – Trials of coastal gillnet bycatch mitigation techniques
Trial studies of pingers and other redesigned mitigation methods’ efficiency in reducing bycatch will be conducted in the Kenyan, Madagascan and Zanzibar fisheries.
Materials and methodology:
Test target catch and bycatch rates in unmodified gillnets (bottom set and driftnets) against commercially available pingers and other developed economically feasible mitigation methods (based on the developments in Activity 3.1) in coastal gillnet fisheries. Catches will be monitored by on-board observers and/or fishermen. Data will be analysed using appropriate statistics to examine differences in catches/bycatch between control (unmodified gillnets) and experimental sets (using commercially available pingers and other developed mitigation methods.
Output: A scientific paper will be prepared for publication; consisting of the outcomes of the mitigation trials and recommendations for further implementation across the WIO if applicable.
Geographic description: Activity conducted at representative sites in Kenya, Madagascar and Zanzibar
Time Frame: Commence 12 months after the start of the project and continue for 12 months.
Responsible partner/s: Responsible partners for these mitigation field trails will be Dr Amir (leading), Dr Wambiji, Mr Perez, Ms Razafindrakoto and Mr Poonian, assisted by Dr Berggren, Dr Kiszka and the Newcastle University MPhil student.
Activity 3.3 – Trials of coastal longline bycatch mitigation techniques
Trial studies of circle hook and other redesigned mitigation methods’ efficiency in reducing bycatch will be conducted in the Kenya and Zanzibar fisheries.
Materials and methodology:
Test target catch and bycatch rates in existing hooks against commercially available circle/J hooks and/or other developed economically feasible mitigation methods (based on the developments in Activity 3.1) in coastal longline fisheries. Catches will be monitored by on-board observers and/or fishermen. Data will be analysed using appropriate statistics to examine differences in catches/bycatches between control (using standard hooks) and experimental sets (using commercially available circle/J-hooks and other developed mitigation methods.
Output: A scientific paper will be prepared for publication; consisting of the outcomes of the mitigation trials and recommendations for further implementation across the WIO if applicable.
Geographic description: The activity will be conducted at representative sites in Kenya and Zanzibar.
Time Frame: Commence 12 months after the start of the project and continue for 12 months.
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Responsible partner/s: Responsible partners for these mitigation field trails will be Dr Amir (leading), Dr Wambiji and Mr Perez, assisted by Dr Berggren, Dr Kiszka and the Newcastle University MPhil student.
Activity 3.4 – Assessment of most suitable TED design
Prawn trawling industry representatives in Madagascar will be consulted to determine the most appropriate TED design and construction material, as used in TEDs in that country.
Materials and methodology:
Interviews with industry representatives (management & vessel captains) will be conducted to determine their practical experiences of TEDs in their fishery
Output: A report describing the various TED designs that have been used in Madagascar, with recommendations for the most appropriate type in terms of design, ease of use, cost-effectiveness etc.
Geographic description: The activity will be conducted in Madagascar.
Time Frame: Commence at the start of the project and continue for 6 months.
Responsible partner/s: Responsible partners for data analysis will be Dr Brito (leading) and Dr Fennessy, with Malagasy collaboration (GAPCM, CSP).
Activity 3.5 – Trials of prawn trawl bycatch mitigation techniques
Trial studies of TED efficiency in reducing bycatch will be conducted in the Mozambique fishery.
Materials and methodology:
Rigorous TED testing on semi-industrial trawlers using a combination of Malagasy expertise (a trawler captain will be contracted) and on-board observers, with novel electronic monitoring if partner funding becomes available. A Mozambican MSc student will undertake analysis of results to establish efficacy of the TED. Samples for biological and ecological parameters will be collected where appropriate (e.g. size; sex; gravidity; maturity; age – tooth samples, vertebrate) for demographic analysis to assess catch composition and any possible patterns/vulnerable groups within the population. Once the results are analysed the process of implementation of TEDs, if applicable, will be started in Mozambique.
Output: A scientific paper will be prepared for publication, consisting of the outcomes of the mitigation trials and recommendations for further implementation across the WIO.
Geographic description: The activity will be conducted at representative sites on the Sofala Bank in Mozambique and compared to previous trials as appropriate.
Time Frame: Commence 9 months after the start of the project and continure for 12 months.
Responsible partner/s: Responsible partners for these mitigation field trials will be Dr Brito (leading), Dr Fennessy and the MSc student from Mozambique, with Malagasy collaboration (GAPCM, UNIMA). Responsible partner for species demographic analysis will be Mr Temple.
Activity 3.6 – Governance process and socio-economic approach to implement bycatch mitigation
Understanding the governance processes in study countries and how these may contribute to, or inhibit the introduction and widespread use of bycatch mitigation where required is essential in building towards future sustainable management of the fisheries.
Materials and methodology:
Initial desktop review, supplemented by Skype / face-to-face interviews to identify appropriate management tools and governance reforms required to help mitigate the impact of bycatch on the environment.
Historical time scans will be used to determine major events (eg political, natural, human and so forth) that have influenced food security in each country then resultant baselines will be applied to help build future scenario focus group meetings with local communities and national decision-makers to identify how complete policy cycles relating to the small-scale fisheries sector are in practice (an incomplete policy cycle can indicate weak governance).
Stakeholder-led planning processes involving the natural and social science scientists will play an important role for building a participatory governance framework to promote sustainable fisheries management within the WIO. Gaps in information previously identified from the research will be used to develop context specific governance frameworks to integrate stakeholder-identified management solutions into local and national policy frameworks applying good governance principles and practices.
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Output: Development of adaptive management approaches that link science, policy and management and identification of areas of improvement where possible in governance practice within the WIO region.
Geographic description: Kenya, Mozambique and Zanzibar.
Time Frame: Commence 12 months after the start of the project and continue for 18 months coinciding with MSc thesis submission.
Responsible partner/s: Responsible partner will be Professor Stead (leading) and an MSc student at IMS in collaboration with Dr Amir, Dr Brito, Dr Wambiji and Dr Jiddawi.
Activity 4.1 – Data mapping (spatial data management)
Creation of an interactive updatable spatial database including baseline data available in the WIO from previous surveys carried out by SWIOFP and National Fisheries datasets (e.g. CAS data) and data collected during the project duration.
Materials and methodology:
A GIS database for fisheries data in the WIO region will be created. The region will be divided into fishing grounds and data for fisheries effort, gear type composition, species catch, composition and volume, along with socio-economic values will be mapped. These data will be complimented with large-scale habitat mapping using remote sensing data (SST, Primary Production, derived bathymetry etc.) sourced from the Natural Environment Research Council Earth Observation Data Acquisition and Analysis Service (NEODAAS). Fisheries data will be compiled for case study regions and extrapolated to other WIO fishing grounds based on available fisheries data for these other regions. Archived datasets (from SWIOFP surveys and National fisheries Datasets) will be included in the analyses. Different thematic maps will be produced (e.g. fishing grounds, migratory patterns, survey routes, fisheries effort, gear usage, bycatch species etc.) including web/online atlas maps. A fully queryable database will be used to identify areas of importance and hotspots, both in terms of risk of overfishing and population declines, and also areas where more research is required (research gaps). This will also be used to extrapolate the project findings to the entire WIO region and give a regional assessment of bycatch. Sustainability of the activity will be ensured by KMFRI’s capacity to design, develop and host the database (at KMFRI data centre) through the informatics division headed by Mr. Harrison.
Output:
1. A fully updatable spatial database running on a web platform relational database management system.
2. A status atlas product for the project encompassing all the components.
3. A scientific paper will be prepared for publication; consisting of the outcomes of the mapping and data extrapolation. The map will be made available for use as a toolbox for future work, into which new and updated data may be added in order to further understand fishing pressures and species distribution throughout the WIO.
5. The activity will provide vital information for the Comprehensive Final Framework.
Time Frame: Commence six months after the project start and continue until the end.
Geographic description: Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zanzibar.
Responsible partner/s: Dr Wambiji (KMFRI) (leading), Mr Onganda (KMFRI, Database/GIS specialist) and Mr Ngisiang’e (KMFRI) and an MSc student at KMFRI assisted by Mr Perez, Mr Temple and Dr Jiddawi.
Theme 5: Comprehensive Final Framework
In this final framework the results from all project themes/activities will be integrated and a comprehensive final report will be produced in order to efficiently pass on important findings and recommendations to Management Organisations and to WIOMSA. The conceptual framework (Fig. 1) illustrates how information from the project’s different themes and activities are integrated and contribute to addressing the overall aim of the project – The overall aim of this project is to provide for future sustainable fisheries by addressing bycatch in the WIO.
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Materials and methodology:
Part 1: The extent, constitution and socio-economic worth of bycatch throughout the WIO will be calculated through combining data from Activities 2.1-2.4 with data on regional fisheries effort (from regional fisheries authorities) and taking into consideration any flaws in the reporting of bycatch as identified in Activity 1.1.
Part 2: Effectivness of bycatch mitigation methodologies from Activities 3.2, 3.3 and 3.5, in particular those redeveloped methodologies considered to be economically viable for use in the WIO, will be assessed. From this analysis and in combination with Part 1 the project will be able to assess and present the theoretical impacts of widescale mitigation use across the WIO, with estimates of expected bycatch reduction.
Part 3: Through the results of Activity 3.6 the project will have determined what are the required processes and steps to undertake, and the financial and socio-economic implications of these, in order to implement mitigation technologies into these fisheries. As such recommendations for improved governance and management will be made available for each country involved in this project and any further countries who wish to provide data for this.
Part 4: Through Activity 4.1we will identify areas, species and gear types of particular importance in terms of bycatch. As such the project will be able to produce well supported reccommendations for those areas in most need of change. Thus to project will produce a priority fishing ground and gear type list for the WIO based on those fisheries in which implementation will have the greatest impacts.
Part 5: Through the actions of Activities 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4 we will be able to assess the relationships between bycatch reported in RBA surveys and true bycatch values. This will provide an analysis of RBA effectiveness and validate or show it’s insufficiency as a method to be as a continuing low-cost way of collecting real-world data for bycatch in the WIO
Output:
Produce a report to make all findings widely accessible. The project will also contribute to WIOFish, OBIS, AfreMas and IOTC databases and contribute to meeting management measures in current management plans such as the small and medium pelagics management in Kenya and Tanzania. The Project will further contribute to the development of Management Plans for established and planned Marine Conservation Areas throughout the WIO.
Time Frame: Commence after 24 months and continue until the end of the project.
Responsible partner/s: Dr Amir and Dr Brito (co-leading) as well as all other project partners.

Publications:

http://www.wiomsa.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/BYCAM-TED-existing-data-workshop-report-final.pdf

http://www.bycamwio.weebly.com

Students:
Students Supported by the Project and Titles of their Projects
For more details about the project:

Dr Omar A. Amir,
Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries (MLF),
P. O. Box 295, Nyangumi House, Maruhubi Street,
Zanzibar, Tanzania.
E-mail: oamakando@yahoo.com, oamakando@gmail.com

Dr Atanasio Brito,
Fisheries Research Institute (IIP),
P.O.Box 4603, 389 Mao Tse Tung Ave,
Maputo, Mozambique.
E-mail:Atanasio.brito@iip.gov.mz, mikamba@hotmail.com

Go to: BYCAM website